Category Archives: Biology


Fascinating 10 facts about fungi

Fungi are in a kingdom of their own but are closer to animals than plants They have chemicals in their cell walls shared with lobsters and crabs A fungus has been discovered capable of breaking down plastics in weeks rather than years There is evidence to suggest that yeasts – a type of fungus –…

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Cancer stem cell theory

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types.…

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DAPI and PI Stains

DAPI (nucleic acid stain)   100mM stock – 10mg/285.5ml dH2O   Working solution – 300nM (1/333 dilution)   Perform DAPI stain after all other labeling/staining.   Add enough DAPI (1/333) to cover sections.   Incubate for 1-5 minutes.   Rinse several times with 1xPBS.  DISCARD WASTE OVER CHARCOAL.   View with DAPI filter (358/461nm).  …

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PCR Based Moleclar Cloning

In its simplest form, PCR based cloning is about making a copy of a piece of DNA and at the same time adding restriction sites to the ends of that piece of DNA so that it can be easily cloned into a plasmid of interest. You can use similar processes to add overhangs to your…

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Protocol for Zymogram

Reagents: 1% Gelatin in H2O (Fisher Blood 275) 1% Casein (Sigma) SDS-PAGE gel stock w/o urea Wash buffer: 2.5% Triton X-100 in H2O (+0.02% NaN3) Incubation Buffer: 50mM Tris-HCl (PH8.0), 5mM CaCl2, 0.02% NaN3 Gels: Regular separating gel containing 10-12% substrate Regular stacking gel Protocol: 1- Collect media from cells (if desired, inactivate non-metalloproteases with…

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