United States presidential election, 1880

The United States presidential election of 1880 was a contest between Republican James A. Garfield and Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock in which the Republican Garfield prevailed. At the Republican convention, supporters of Ulysses S. Grant James G. Blaine, and John Sherman deadlocked for thirty-six rounds of voting before settling on Garfield as the nominee. At the Democratic convention, Hancock fended off challenges by Thomas F. Bayard, Samuel J. Randall, and Henry B.…

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Madonna Louise Ciccone

Madonna Louise Ciccone (born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman. She achieved popularity by pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music and imagery in her music videos, which became a fixture on MTV. Madonna is known for reinventing both her music and image, and for maintaining her autonomy within…

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Agglutination-PCR (ADAP) is an ultrasensitive solution-phase method for detecting antibodies. Antibodies bind to and agglutinate synthetic antigen–DNA conjugates, enabling ligation of the DNA strands and subsequent quantification by qPCR. Like other Immuno-PCR (IPCR) detection methods ADAP combines the specificity of antibody-antigen recognition and the sensitivity of PCR. ADAP detects zepto- to attomoles of antibodies in 2…

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Competitive ELISA

A third use of ELISA is through competitive binding. The steps for this ELISA are somewhat different from the first two examples: Unlabeled antibody is incubated in the presence of its antigen (sample). These bound antibody/antigen complexes are then added to an antigen-coated well. The plate is washed, so unbound antibodies are removed. (The more…

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Sandwich ELISA protocol

A “sandwich” ELISA is used to detect sample antigen. The steps are: A surface is prepared to which a known quantity of capture antibody is bound. Any nonspecific binding sites on the surface are blocked. The antigen-containing sample is applied to the plate, and captured by antibody. The plate is washed to remove unbound antigen.…

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